Kelly Services《零工经济报告》(一)

大概三年前,“零工经济(gig economy)”一词开始在中国“走红”。因为缺乏对“零工经济”的专业、权威定义、研究成果和报告,国内对“零工经济”的理解比较肤浅,很多人把“零工经济”与”临时工“、“打临工”、“打零工”等词混淆。

为了更加深入地了解”零工经济“及应用的情况,我们找到最早从事劳务派遣服务的《财富》美国企业500强凯利服务公司(Kelly Services)的调研报告——《Gig Economy Report (零工经济报告)》,并翻译出来。

从凯利的报告中,可以对”零工经济“有更全面、更准确的理解和认识,先摘录几个观点,供大家”品尝“一下:

报告观点一:随着员工和工作本身要求更大的灵活性来推动创新和工作-生活平衡,整个工作概念变得越来越不固定。为了跟上这种快速变化的形势,企业可以采用“工作匹配(workfit)”的方式来管理员工(一种适应不断发展的零工经济的方法)。这种思维方式的转变始于一种对人才供应链的新理解,即人才供应链不仅仅只包含全职员工,还包括各种零工—— 临时员工、独立承包人、顾问和自由职业者—— 这些人构成了零工经济。

报告观点二:零工经济包含了任何类型的工作,在这些工作中,人才是按一个独立的任务、项目或一段时间获得薪酬。零工可以自由地进出不同的领域,包括直接就业。

报告观点三:最优秀的人才在如何将工作与个人生活和兴趣结合起来的问题上寻求更大的掌控权。随着这一转变,灵活性职业将继续发展。

报告观点四:绝大多数零工都是高技能并且受过教育的。

报告观点五:当涉及到技能时,企业人才管理者主要雇佣具有高度专业技能的零工。一项行业分析显示,石油和天然气行业在利用零工人才方面处于领先地位,而汽车行业则较为落后。

……

报告的分成七部分,主要内容有五个方面:

前言

简介

零工经济的崛起

零工经济的动态

劳动力优化成熟度指标

利用零工经济助力组织成功

一切为了商业成果

因为时间仓促、翻译量大、水平有限、排版复杂等因素,一定有不准确的地方、有阅读不便之处,请多多指正!

报告很长,我们分五次发布,敬请关注。

变革劳动力的工作匹配

零工经济时代已经到来,你的劳动力战略是否能帮助组织获利和参与竞争?

目录

前言 Foreword

简介 Introduction

零工经济的崛起 Rise of the Gig Economy

零工经济的动态 Dynamics of the Gig Economy

劳动力优化成熟度指标 Workforce Optimization Maturity Index

利用零工经济获得组织成功 Leveraging the Gig Economy for Organizational Success

化所有为商业成果 It All Comes Down to Business Results

关于作者 About the Author

前言:零工经济正在

蓬勃发展…

Foreword: The Gig Economy is Thriving…

但是,这对组织意味着什么?

But what does that mean for organizations?

简单来说,这意味着组织也有机会发展壮大。受全球化、技术、技能转变以及社会和人口变化的影响,全球劳动力正在经历巨大的变革。随着员工和工作本身要求更大的灵活性来推动创新和工作-生活平衡,整个工作概念变得越来越不固定。为了跟上这种快速变化的形势,企业可以采用“工作匹配(workfit)”的方式来管理员工(一种适应不断发展的零工经济的方法)。

Simply put, it means there’s an opportunity for organizations to thrive as well. The global workforce is undergoing dramatic transformations influenced by globalization, technology, and skill shifts, as well as societal and demographic changes. As workers, and work itself, demand more flexibility to drive innovationand work-life design, the entire concept of work is becoming more fluid. Organizations can keep up with this quickly shifting landscape by embracing a “workfit” approach to workforce management—one that adapts to the rising gig economy.

对许多人来说,说起来容易做起来难。我们有越来越多的企业客户要求人才战略和解决方案,以使他们的组织更具优势。最初,我们与他们的对话都是教育性质的,这是因为需要优先对他们进行思维方式的转变。

For many, that’s easier said than done. More and more of our enterprise clients are asking for talent strategies and solutions that will give their organizations an edge. Initially, our conversations with them are educational more than anything. That’s because there’s a mindset shift that needs to take place.

这种思维方式的转变始于一种对人才供应链的新理解,即人才供应链不仅仅只包含全职员工,还包括各种零工 — 临时员工、独立承包人、顾问和自由职业者 –– 这些人构成了零工经济。 最先进的公司将人力资源、采购和运营相关负责人聚集在一起,以了解彼此的观点,并在整个人才供应链中使用全职和零工员工。他们围绕雇佣员工来制定人才战略和运营基础,以推进公司的整体商业战略。因此,他们不仅获得了竞争优势,同时也建立了拥有最优秀人才的立足点。

The shift begins with understanding that the talent supply chain is more than full-time workers. It includes free agents—temporary employees, independent contractors, consultants, freelancers—all of the talentthat makes up the gig economy. The most progressive companies bring HR, procurement, and operations stakeholders together to understand each other’s perspectives and use both full-time and gig workers across the entirety of the talent supply chain. They shape their talent strategy and operational foundationaround acquiring workers to advance their company’s business strategy. And, as a result, they secure competitive advantage while also establishing a foothold with the best available talent.

达成上述目标似乎是一项艰巨的任务,而且不可能一蹴而就。组织需要关注那些影响职场的趋势,并战略性地思考你的劳动力计划。这是一段值得努力去创造竞争优势的旅程。

Getting there may seem like a daunting task, and it doesn’t happen overnight. It requires looking at the trends impacting the workplace and thinking strategically about your workforce planning. It’s a journey that’s worth the effort to create a competitive advantage.

为了支持我们的客户,我们进行了研究,以了解一家公司需要关注的核心问题——思维方式、战略和运营流程——以便在人才供应链中释放这一尚未被充分发掘的价值,并领先于这一趋势以最大化影响力。我相信这项最新的研究将会给你带来关键性见解,使你和你的组织在新的零工经济中蓬勃发展。祝您阅读愉快,并期待您的评论。

To the end of supporting our clients, we conducted research to get at the heart of what a company needs to focus on—mindset, strategy, and operational processes—in order to unleash this largely untapped valuein the talent supply chain and get ahead of the trend to maximize impact. I am confident that this latest research will impart critical insights, enabling you and your organization to thrive in the new gig economy. I wish you an enjoyable read and look forward to your comments.

作者:Amy Anger

副总裁 & 全球负责人

人力资源专家 & 首席文化官

凯利服务公司

外部专家与内部资源合作所带来的知识转移将帮助项目、员工以及组织收益。

— 副总裁,某跨国技术公司

The knowledge transfer that occurs as a natural outcome of outside experts working alongside internal resources benefits the project, the employee, and the organization.

— VP, Multinational Technology Company

简介

Introduction

长期倡导零工经济的凯利服务公司 (Kelly Services) 十多年来一直专注于自由职业市场,是追踪研究灵活用工崛起的先驱。最近,我们深入研究了全球各地的人才管理者的思维模式——收集他们对零工经济现状的看法,他们如何在组织内利用自由职业者,以及他们如何看待零工人才在未来的雇佣变化。

Kelly Services, a long-time advocate for the gig economy, has focused on the free agent marketplace for more than a decade, taking an early lead on tracking the rise of free agents as a pivotal force in the talent mix. Most recently, we’ve tapped into the mindsets of talent managers across the globe—gathering their perspectives on where the gig economy stands today, how they’re leveraging free agents within their organizations, and how they see the usage of gig talent shifting in the future.

通过这项研究,我们发现随着组织在使用零工方面日趋成熟,他们的优势变得更加明显。有远见的公司能带来更多的成本节约,更强的竞争优势,以及更好地获取小众特殊技能等等。这些我们称之为“创新者”*的公司能通过优化他们的劳动力和灵活利用零工实现具体的利益,创造更好的商业成果。

Through this research, we’ve found that as organizations mature in their usage of gig talent, the advantages become more apparent. Forward-thinking companies yield greater cost savings, stronger competitive advantage, better access to niche skill sets, and so much more. By optimizing their workforces and leveraging gig talent, these “Innovators,” as we call them, realize concrete benefits that drive better business results.

为了帮助您的组织实现类似的成果,我们开发了一个劳动力优化成熟度指数(Workforce Optimization Maturity Index),它评估了今天的公司如何利用零工劳动力来驱动积极的商业成果。在本文中,我们将揭示零工经济的方方面面,帮助您确定您在劳动力优化成熟度指数中的位置,并展示这个指数将如何帮助您更好地利用这种渐进的劳动力管理方法,以获得更大的成功。

To help your organization achieve similar outcomes, we have developed a proprietary Workforce Optimization Maturity Index, which evaluates how companies today are utilizing the gig workforce to drive positive business results. In this paper, we will uncover the ins and outs of the gig economy, help you determine where you fall on the Workforce Optimization Maturity Index, and demonstrate how the Workforce Optimization Maturity Index can help you better leverage this progressive workforce management approach to achieve greater organizational success.

*创新者 – 在优化劳动力方面先行的创新公司们,其人力成本节约提高到30%以上的可能性是原来的3倍,而获得显著竞争优势的可能性则是11倍。

*Innovators—companies further along their workforce optimization journey—are 3x more likely to drive labor cost savings in excess of 30%, and 11x more likely to achieve a significantly higher competitive advantage.

零工经济的崛起

Rise of the Gig Economy

什么是零工经济?

它的驱动力、挑战和机遇是什么?

What is the gig economy,

and what are the driving forces, challenges, and opportunities associated with it?

随着职场环境的变化,雇主和雇员的关系也随之改变,对雇主的长期承诺正在减少。最优秀的人才在如何将工作与个人生活和兴趣结合起来的问题上寻求更大的掌控权。随着这一转变,灵活性职业将继续发展。

As the world of work changes, the employer-employee relationship is shifting right along with it. Long-term commitments to employers are waning. The best talent is seeking greater control and ownership over how they integrate work with their personal lives and passions. With this shift in the way that the world wants to work, careers built on flexibility continue to gain ground.

最终,零工经济得以蓬勃发展,大多数全球管理人员在他们的团队和部门中利用零工来节省成本、驱动创新和推动竞争优势。通过利用零工的专业技能,而且不受传统就业的限制和官僚主义的束缚,组织在快速发展的经济环境中将更加灵活、具有创新力和竞争力。尽管不同地区、不同行业、不同技能之间存在零工使用上的差异,但所有迹象都表明,零工经济是一股不可忽视的力量。

As a result, the gig economy is thriving, and the majority of global talent managers are leveraging gig workers (also known as free agents) in their teams and departments to drive cost savings, innovation, and competitive advantage. By leveraging the skills and expertise of as-needed freelance talent, without the restraints and bureaucracy of traditional employment, organizations are more nimble, innovative, and competitive within a lightning-fast economy. While there are usage variances across geographies, industries, and skill sets, all signs point to the gig economy being a compelling force with which to be reckoned.

定义零工经济

Defining the Gig Economy

零工经济包含了任何类型的工作,在这些工作中,人才是按一个独立的任务、项目或一段时间获得薪酬。零工可以自由地进出不同的领域,包括直接就业。在数字化劳动力平台的驱动下,随着按需招聘需求的不断增长以及对解决人才和技能短缺的创新方式的需求增长,零工经济得以发展。

The gig economy (also known as free agent economy) encompasses any type of work in which talent is paid for a discrete task, project, or period of time. Workers may fluidly move in and out of different categories, including direct employment. Largely powered by digital labor platforms, the gig economy has evolved along with the increasing need for on-demand hiring and innovative approaches to talent and skill shortages.

零工经济的发展

Gig Economy Growth Over Time

近三分之一的全球劳动力在逐渐放弃放弃传统的就业机会,以追求自由职业所提供的灵活性和自由度。越来越多的人将自由职业视为让他们的工作生活为自己服务的一种方式,将自由职业视为一个平衡工作和个人生活的机会,而不是围绕工作而生活。

Close to one-third of the global workforce is forgoing traditional employment for the flexibility and freedom offered by free agency. Increasingly, workers see free agency as a way to make their work lives work for them, seeing it as an opportunity to organize their work around life, rather than their life around work.

零工的经济影响

Economic Impact of Free Agency

仅仅是小微企业(拥有不到五名雇员的小型商业)就占据了美国17%的GDP,创造了2.4万亿美金的销售额。

Micro-businesses alone (freelance business owners with fewer than five employees) constitute 17% of the U.S. GDP, generating $2.4 trillion in sales.

Staffing Industry Analysts (SIA) 的报告显示,人力云的爆炸式增长极大推动了零工经济,2016年在全球范围内创造了256亿至286亿美元的金额。

The explosive growth of the Human Cloud is bolstering the gig economy movement, generating between $25.6 billion and $28.6 billion globally in 2016, according to a reportby Staffing Industry Analysts (SIA).

零工经济的现状

The State of the Gig Economy

多年来,零工从少数人发展成一个庞大的群体。如今,零工占全球劳动力的31%。仅在美国,就有5000万零工,占美国劳动力的33%。

Free agent ranks have grown over the years from a small minority to a sizeable crowd. Today, gig workers make up 31% of the global workforce. In the U.S. alone, there are 50 million free agents, comprising 33% of the country’s workforce.

事实上,62%会使用零工的人才管理者都表示,使用零工是未来大势。近三分之二(65%)的人才经理认为零工经济正成为企业组织的新常态,近四分之三(73%)的人认为,更灵活、流动性更强的劳动力将成为应对日益变化的全球商业环境的一种方式。十分之七使用零工的人才经理认为雇主和员工之间的关系正在变化,有才能的人更有影响力,而且他们希望在个人生活中也被当作顾客来对待。

In fact, according to 62% of global talent managers who use free agents in their departments, free agents are the workers of the future. Nearly two-thirds (65%) of talent managers think the gig economy is becoming the new normal for how businesses organize work and almost three quarters (73%) believe a much more flexible and fluid workforce will emerge as a way to navigate an increasingly dynamic, global business climate. Seven out of 10 talent managers using free agents see the employer-worker relationship shifting, with talent asserting more leverage, as well as a desire to be treated the way they are treated as consumers in their personal lives.

雇佣零工的人才管理者表示,平均来说,他们27%的劳动力都由零工组成。

Overall, talent managers who utilize gig workers say that (on average) 27% of their workforce is made up of gig workers.

21%的人表示,零工占据了他们超过40%的劳动力。

21% say that gig workers make up more than 40% of their workforce.

使用零工的人才管理者部门中零工占据的劳动力比例

Percentage of Talent Managers’ Department Workforce Comprised of Free Agent/Gig Talent

零工使用情况的细分

Usage Breakdown

当调查研究全球零工人才的使用情况时,我们会阐明哪些地区、技能和行业正在利用零工经济作为其劳动力战略的一部分。在美国,就业法的监管力度较弱,在零工人才的使用方面落后,与其他地区相比,会使用零工的人才管理者要少得多。当涉及到技能时,人才管理者主要雇佣具有高度专业技能的零工。一项行业分析显示,石油和天然气行业在利用零工人才方面处于领先地位,而汽车行业则较为落后。

When looking at usage of gig talent globally, light is shed on which regions, skill sets, and industries are leveraging the gig economy as part of their workforce strategies. The U.S., where employment law is less regulated, falls behind in the usage of gig talent, with significantly fewer talent managers using free agents than other regions. When it comes to skill sets, talent managers are primarily hiring free agents with highly professional/technical skills. An industry breakdown reveals that the oil & gas sector is a leader in the usage of gig talent, whereas the automotive industry lags behind.

在全球范围内,有65%的人才管理者雇佣或使用零工。

Globally, 65% of talent managers hire/use gig workers.

按地区划分雇佣或使用零工的全球人才经理的百分比

Percent of Global Talent Managers by Region Who Hire/Use Gig Workers

使用趋势

Usage Trends

当被要求报告他们部门近几年的零工数量变化时,人才经理们回答:

When asked to report the change in volume of free agents in their department over time, talent managers who utilize gig workers reported:

十分之九的人才经理预计,未来几年,他们对零工的使用将保持不变,或将增加(或多或少)。

Nine out of ten talent managers expect their usage of gig workers to stay the same or increase (somewhat or significantly) in the coming years.

按技能划分雇佣或使用零工的全球人才经理的百分比

Percent of Global Talent Managers Who Hire/Use Gig Workers by Skill Set

按领域划分雇佣或使用零工的全球人才经理的百分比

Percent of Global Talent Managers Who Hire/Use Gig Workers by Industry

零工的简况

Profile of a Gig Worker

绝大多数零工都是高技能并且受过教育的。他们重视自己的事业发展、创造性的表达,并对自己的工作和赚钱能力高度投入。事实上,在美国,每10个零工中就有8个在家庭财务中扮演着重要角色。

The vast majority of gig workers are highly skilled and educated. They value developing their careers, creative expression, and are highly committed to their work and their earning power. In fact, more than eight out of 10 free agents in the U.S. play a key role in their households’ financial well-being.

另外,绝大多数的零工都是有选择性地工作和生活。人口结构的变化、快速的技术进步、以及在日益重视在线评价(yelpified)*的工作环境下“员工地位的崛起”,正在推动人们重新构想工作与生活的关系。四分之三(75%)的全球零工出于各种各样积极的原因选择自由职业,其中个人意志和职业机会排在首位。

Additionally, the vast majority of free agents work and live this way by choice. Demographic shifts, rapid technological advancement, and “the rise of the employee” in an increasingly “yelpified” workplace are driving a reimagined relationship between work and the rest of life. Three-quarters (75%) of global free agents choose free agency for positive reasons, with personal empowerment and career opportunities topping the list.

Yelpification

Yelp是美国著名商户点评网站,创立于2004年,囊括各地餐馆、购物中心、酒店、旅游等领域的商户,用户可以在Yelp网站中给商户打分,提交评论,交流购物体验等。Yelpification现在也指人们通过在线评论对商业有更多了解的现象。

The process by which a business is reviewed by an online community. May also refer to the phenomenon of utilizing online reviews as a way of becoming more aware of a business.

在全球范围内,65%的人才经理使用零工员工,近四分之三(73%)的人认为,更灵活、流动性更强的员工队伍将成为应对日益变化以及更为全球化的商业环境。

Globally, 65% of talent managers use gig workers, and almost three quarters (73%) believe a much more flexible and fluid workforce will emerge as a way to navigate an increasingly dynamic, global business climate.

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